About me: My name is Solène Rapenne. I like learning and sharing my knowledge related to IT stuff. Hobbies: '(BSD OpenBSD h+ Lisp cmdline gaming internet-stuff). I love percent and lambda characters. OpenBSD developer solene@.

Contact me: solene on Freenode, solene+www at dataswamp dot org or solene@bsd.network (mastodon). If for some reason you want to give me some money, I accept paypal at the address donate@perso.pw.

A curated non-violent games list

Written by Solène, on 18 October 2020.
Tags: #gaming

Comments on Mastodon

For long time I wanted to share a list of non-violent games I enjoyed, so here it is. Obviously, this list is FAR from being complete and exhaustive. It contains games I played and that I liked. They should all run on Linux and some on OpenBSD.

Aside this list, most tycoon and puzzle games should be non-violent.

Automation / Building games

This game is like Factorio, you have to automate production lines and increase the output of shapes/colors. Very time consuming.

The project is Open source but you need to buy the game if you don’t want to compile yourself. Or just use my compiled version at https://perso.pw/shapez.io/ (require a chrome based browser…)

A transport tycoon game, multiplayer possible! Very complex, the community is active and you can find tons of mods.

The game is Open source and you can certainly install it on any distribution with the package manager.

This game is about building equipments to restore the nature into a wasteland, improve the biodiversity and then remove all your structures.

The game is not open source but is free of charge. The music seems to be under an open licence. Still, you can pay what you want for it to support the developer.

This is a short game about chaining producing buildings into another, all from garbages up to some secret ending :)

The game is not open source but is free of charge.

Sandbox / Adventure game

This game is a clone of Minecraft, it supports a lot of mods (which can make the game very complex, like adding trains tracks with their signals, the pinnacle of complexity :D). As far as I know, the game now supports health but there are no fight involved.

The game is Open source and free of charge.

This game is about exploration in a forest. It has a nice music, gameplay is easy.

The game is not open source but it’s free. Still, you can pay what you want for it to support the developer.

Action / reflex games

This category of games contains games that require some reflexes or at least need to player to be active to play.

This game is about driving a 2D motocross and pass through obstacles, it can be very hard and will challenge you for long time.

it’s Open source and free of charge.

This is a fun game where you need to drive some big trucks only using a displayed control panel with your mouse which make things very hard.

The game is not open source and not free, but the cost isn’t very high (3.99€ at the moment from France).

This game is about a teenager character who is on vacation in a place with no cell network, and you will have to make a hike and meet people to go to the end. Very relaxing :)

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free, but costs around 8€ at the moment from France.

This game is about adding trains to tracks and avoid them to crash. I found this game to be more about reflexes than building, simulation or tycoon. You mostly need to route the trains in real time.

The game isn’t open source and not free but costs around 10€.

Puzzle games (Zachtronics games)

What’s a Zachtronics game? It’s a game edited by Zachtronics! Every game from this studio have a common pattern. You solve puzzles with more and more complexes systems, you can compare your result in speed / efficiency / steps to the others player. They are a mix in between automation and puzzles. Those games are really good. There are more than the 3 games I list, but I didn’t enjoy them all, check the full list

You play an alchemist who is asked to create product for a rich family. You need to setup devices to transforms and combine materials into the expected result.

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free. The average cost is 20€.

This game is in 3D, you receive materials on conveyor belts and you will have to rotate and wield them to deliver the expect material.

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free. The average cost is 20€.

This game is about writing code into assembly. There are calculations units that will add/sub values from registers and pass it to another unit. Even more fun if you print the old fashion instructions book!

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free. The average cost is 10€.

Visual Novel

The expression Amrilato

This game is about a japanese girl who ends in a parallel world where everything seems similar but in this Japan, people talk Esperanto.

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free. The average cost is 20€.

Not very violent

Way of the Passive Fist

I would like to add this game to this list. It’s a brawler (like street of rage) in which you don’t fight people, but you only dodge attacks to exhaust enemies or counter-attack. It’s still a bit violent because it involves violence toward you, and throwing back a knife would still be violent… But still, I think this is an unique game that merits to be better known. :)

The game isn’t open source and isn’t free, expect around 15€ for it.

Making a home NAS using NixOS

Written by Solène, on 18 October 2020.
Tags: #nixos #linux #nas

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Still playing with NixOS, I wanted to experience how difficult it would be to write a NixOS configuration file to turn a computer into a simple NAS with basics features: samba storage, dlna server and auto suspend/resume.

What is NixOS? As a reminder for some and introduction to the others, NixOS is a Linux distribution built by the Nix package manager, which make it very different than any other operating system out there, except Guix which has a similar approach with their own package manager written in Scheme.

NixOS uses a declarative configuration approach along with lot of others features derived from Nix. What’s big here is you no longer tweak anything in /etc or install packages, you can define the working state of the system in one configuration file. This system is a totally different beast than the others OS and require some time to understand how it work. Good news though, everything is documented in the man page configuration.nix, from fstab configuration to users managements or how to enable samba!

Here is the /etc/nixos/configuration.nix file on my NAS.

It enables ssh server, samba, minidlna and vnstat. Set up an user with my ssh public key. Ready to work.

Using rtcwake command (Linux specific), it’s possible to put the system into standby mode and schedule an auto resume after some time. This is triggered by a cron job at 01h00.

{ config, pkgs, ... }:
{
  # include stuff related to hardware, auto generated at install
  imports = ./hardware-configuration.nix ];
  boot.loader.grub.device = "/dev/sda";

  # network configuration
  networking.interfaces.enp3s0.ipv4.addresses = [ {
    address = "192.168.42.150";
    prefixLength = 24;
  } ];
  networking.defaultGateway = "192.168.42.1";
  networking.nameservers = [ "192.168.42.231" ];

  # FR locales and layout
  i18n.defaultLocale = "fr_FR.UTF-8";
  console = { font = "Lat2-Terminus16"; keyMap = "fr"; };
  time.timeZone = "Europe/Paris";

  # Packages management
  environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [
    kakoune vnstat borgbackup utillinux
  ];

  # network disabled (I need to check the ports used first)
  networking.firewall.enable = false;

  # services to enable
  services.openssh.enable = true;
  services.vnstat.enable = true;

  # auto standby
  services.cron.systemCronJobs = [
      "0 1 * * * root rtcwake -m mem --date +6h"
  ]; 

  # samba service
  services.samba.enable = true;
  services.samba.enableNmbd = true;
  services.samba.extraConfig = ''
        workgroup = WORKGROUP
        server string = Samba Server
        server role = standalone server
        log file = /var/log/samba/smbd.%m
        max log size = 50
        dns proxy = no
        map to guest = Bad User
    '';
  services.samba.shares = {
      public = {
          path = "/home/public";
          browseable = "yes";
          "writable" = "yes";
          "guest ok" = "yes";
          "public" = "yes";
          "force user" = "share";
        };
     };

  # minidlna service
  services.minidlna.enable = true;
  services.minidlna.announceInterval = 60;
  services.minidlna.friendlyName = "Rorqual";
  services.minidlna.mediaDirs = ["A,/home/public/Musique/" "V,/home/public/Videos/"];

  # trick to create a directory with proper ownership
  # note that tmpfiles are not necesserarly temporary if you don't
  # set an expire time. Trick given on irc by someone I forgot the name..
  systemd.tmpfiles.rules = [ "d /home/public 0755 share users" ];

  # create my user, with sudo right and my public ssh key
  users.users.solene = {
    isNormalUser = true;
    extraGroups = [ "wheel" "sudo" ];
    openssh.authorizedKeys.keys = [
          "ssh-ed25519 AAAAC3NzaC1lZDI1NTE5AAAAIOIZKLFQXVM15viQXHYRjGqE4LLfvETMkjjgSz0mzMzS personal"
          "ssh-ed25519 AAAAC3NzaC1lZDI1NTE5AAAAIOIZKLFQXVM15vAQXBYRjGqE6L1fvETMkjjgSz0mxMzS pro"
    ];
  };

  # create a dedicated user for the shares
  # I prefer a dedicated one than "nobody"
  # can't log into it
  users.users.share= {
    isNormalUser = false;
  };
}

NixOS optional features in packages

Written by Solène, on 14 October 2020.
Tags: #nixos #linux

Comments on Mastodon

As a claws-mail user, I like to have calendar support in the mail client to be able to “accept” invitations. In the default NixOS claws-mail package, the vcalendar module isn’t installed with the package. Still, it is possible to add support for the vcalendar module without ugly hack.

It turns out, by default, the claws-mail package in Nixpkg has an optional build option for the vcalendar module, we need to tell nixpkg we want this module and claws-mail will be compiled.

As stated in the NixOS manual, the optionals features can’t be searched yet. So what’s possible is to search for your package in the NixOS packages search, click on the package name to get to the details and click on the link named “Nix expression” that will open a link to the package definition on GitHUB, claws-mail nix expression

As you can see on the claws-mail nix expression code, there are lot of lines with optional, those are features we can enable. Here is a sample:

[..]
++ optional (!enablePluginArchive) "--disable-archive-plugin"
++ optional (!enablePluginLitehtmlViewer) "--disable-litehtml_viewer-plugin"
++ optional (!enablePluginPdf) "--disable-pdf_viewer-plugin"
++ optional (!enablePluginPython) "--disable-python-plugin"
[..]

In your configuration.nix file, where you define the package list you want, you can tell you want to enable the plugin vcalendar, this is done as in the following example:

environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [
  kakoune git firefox irssi minetest
  (pkgs.claws-mail.override { enablePluginVcalendar = true;})
];

When you rebuild your system to match the configuration definition, claws-mail will be compiled with the extras options you defined.

Now, I have claws-mail with vCalendar support.

Unlock a full disk encryption NixOS with usb memory stick

Written by Solène, on 06 October 2020.
Tags: #nixos #linux

Comments on Mastodon

Using NixOS on a laptop on which the keyboard isn’t detected when I need to type the password to decrypt disk, I had to find a solution. This problem is hardware related, not Linux or NixOS related.

I highly recommend using full disk encryption on every computer following a thief threat model. Having your computer stolen is bad, but if the thief has access to all your data, you will certainly be in trouble.

This was time to find how to use an usb memory stick to unlock the full disk encryption in case I don’t have my hands on an usb keyboard to unlock the computer.

There are 4 steps to enable unlocking the luks volume using a device.

  1. Create the key
  2. Add the key on the luks volume
  3. Write the key on the usb device
  4. Configure NixOS

First step, creating the file. The easiest way is to the following:

# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/root/key.bin bs=4096 count=1

This will create a 4096 bytes key. You can choose the size you want.

Second step is to register that key in the luks volume, you will be prompted for luks password when doing so.

# cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sda1 /root/key.bin

Then, it’s time to write the key to your usb device, I assume it will be /dev/sdb.

# dd if=/root/key.bin of=/dev/sdb bs=4096 count=1

And finally, you will need to configure NixOS to give the information about the key. It’s important to give the correct size of the key. Don’t forget to adapt "crypted" to your luks volume name.

boot.initrd.luks.devices."crypted".keyFileSize = 4096;
boot.initrd.luks.devices."crypted".keyFile = "/dev/sdb";

Rebuild your system with nixos-rebuild switch and voilà!

Going further

I recommend using the fallback to password feature so if you lose or don’t have your memory stick, you can type the password to unlock the disk. Note that you need to not put anything looking like a /dev/sdb because if it exists and no key are there, the system won’t ask for password, and you will need to reboot.

boot.initrd.luks.devices."crypted".fallbackToPassword = true;

It’s also possible to write the key in a partition or at a specific offset into your memory disk. For this, look at boot.initrd.luks.devices."volume".keyFileOffset entry.

Playing chess by email

Written by Solène, on 28 September 2020.
Tags: #chess

Comments on Mastodon

It’s possible to play chess using email. This is possible because there are notations like PGN (Portable Game Notation) that describe the state of a game.

By playing on your computer and sending the PGN of the game to your opponent, that person will be able to play their move and send you the new PGN so you can play.

Using xboard

This is quite easy with xboard (which should be available in most bsd/linux/unix distributions), as long as you are aware of the few keybindings.

When you start a game, press Ctrl+E to enter edition mode, this will prevent the AI to play, then make your move.

From there, you can press Ctrl+C to copy the state of the game. You will have something like this in your clipboard.

[Event "Edited game"]
[Site "solene.local"]
[Date "2020.09.28"]
[Round "-"]
[White "-"]
[Black "-"]
[Result "*"]

1. d3
*

You can send this to your opponent, but the only needed data is 1. d3 which is the PGN notation of the moves. You can throw the rest.

In a more advanced game, you will end up mailing this kind of data:

1. d3 e6 2. e4 f5 3. exf5 exf5 4. Qe2+ Be7 5. Qxe7+ Qxe7+

When you want to play your turn, load that line and press Ctrl+V, you should see the moves happening on the board.

Using gnuchess

gnuchess allow playing chess in command line.

When you want to start a game, you will have a prompt, type manual to not play against the AI. I recommend using coords to display coordinates on the axis of the board.

When you type show board you will have this display:

  white  KQkq

8 r n b q k b n r 
7 p p p p p p p p 
6 . . . . . . . . 
5 . . . . . . . . 
4 . . . . . . . . 
3 . . . . . . . . 
2 P P P P P P P P 
1 R N B Q K B N R 
  a b c d e f g h 

Then, I can type d3 I get a display

8 r n b q k b n r 
7 p p p p p p p p 
6 . . . . . . . . 
5 . . . . . . . . 
4 . . . . . . . . 
3 . . . P . . . . 
2 P P P . P P P P 
1 R N B Q K B N R 
  a b c d e f g h 

From the game, you can save the game using pgnsave FILE and load a game using pgnload FILE.

You can see the list of the moves using show game.

About pipelining OpenBSD ports contributions

Written by Solène, on 27 September 2020.
Tags: #openbsd #automation

Comments on Mastodon

After modest contributions to the NixOS operating system which made me learn about the contribution process, I found enjoyable to have an automatic report and feedback about the quality of the submitted work. While on NixOS this requires GitHub, I think this could be applied as well on OpenBSD and the mailing list contributing system.

I made a prototype before starting the real work and actually I’m happy with the result.

This is what I get after feeding the script with a mail containing a patch:

Determining package path         ✓    
Verifying patch isn't committed  ✓    
Applying the patch               ✓    
Fetching distfiles               ✓    
Distfile checksum                ✓    
Applying ports patches           ✓    
Extracting sources               ✓    
Building result                  ✓

It requires a lot of checks to find a patch in the file, because we have have patches generated from cvs or git which have a slightly different output. And then, we need to find from where to apply this patch.

The idea would be to retrieve mails sent to ports@openbsd.org by subscribing, then store metadata about that submission into a database:

Sender
Date
Diff (raw text)
Status (already committed, doesn't apply, apply, compile)

Then, another program will pick a diff from the database, prepare a VM using a derivated qcow2 disk from a base image so it always start fresh and clean and ready, and do the checks within the VM.

Once it is finished, a mail could be sent as a reply to the original mail to give the status of each step until error or last check. The database could be reused to make a web page to track what compiles but is not yet committed. As it’s possible to verify if a patch is committed in the tree, this can automatically prune committed patches over time.

I really think this can improve tracking patches sent to ports@ and ease the contribution process.

DISCLAIMER

  • This would not be an official part of the project, I do it on my own
  • This may be cancelled
  • This may be a bad idea
  • This could be used “as a service” instead of pulling automatically from ports, meaning people could send mails to it to receive an automatic review. Ideally this should be done in portcheck(1) but I’m not sure how to verify a diff apply on the ports tree without enforcing requirements
  • Human work will still be required to check the content and verify the port works correctly!

Docker cheatsheet

Written by Solène, on 24 September 2020.
Tags: #docker

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Simple Docker cheatsheet. This is a short introduction about Docker usage and common questions I have been asking myself about Docker.

The official documentation for building docker images can be found here

Build an image

Building an image is really easy. As a requirement, you need to be in a directory that can contain data you will use for building the image but most importantly, you need a Dockerfile file.

The Dockerfile file hold all the instructions to create the container. A simple example would be this description:

FROM busybox
CMD "echo" "hello world"

This will create a docker container using busybox base image and run echo "hello world" when you run it.

To create the container, use the following command in the same directory in which Dockerfile is:

$ docker build -t your-image-name .

Advanced image building

If you need to compile sources to distribute a working binary, you need to prepare the environment to have the required dependencies to compile and then you need to compile a static binary to ship the container without all the dependencies.

In the following example we will use a debian environment to build the software downloaded by git.

FROM debian as work
WORKDIR /project

RUN apt-get update
RUN apt-get install -y git make gcc
RUN git clone git://bitreich.org/sacc /project
RUN apt-get install -y libncurses5-dev libncurses5
RUN make LDFLAGS="-static -lncurses -ltinfo"

FROM debian

COPY --from=work /project/sacc /usr/local/bin/sacc

CMD "sacc" "gopherproject.org"

I won’t explain every command here, but you may see that I have split the packages installation in two commands. This was to help debugging.

The trick here is that the docker build process has a cache feature. Every time you use a FROM, COPY, RUN or CMD docker will cache the current state of the build process, if you re-run the process docker will be able to pick up the most recent state until the change.

I wasn’t sure how to compile statically the software at first, and having to install git make and gcc and run git clone EVERY TIME was very time consuming and bandwidth consuming.

In case you run this build and it fails, you can re-run the build and docker will catch up directly at the last working step.

If you change a line, docker will reuse the last state with a FROM/COPY/RUN/CMD command before the changed line. Knowing about this is really important for more efficient cache use.

Run an image

With the previously locally built image we can run it with the command:

$ docker run your-image-name
hello world

By default, when you use an image name to run, if you don’t have a local image that match the name docker will check on the docker official repository if an image exists, if so, it will be pulled and run.

$ docker run hello-world

This is a sample official container that will display some explanations about docker.

If you want to try a gopher client, I made a docker version of it that you can run with the following command:

$ docker run -t -i rapennesolene/sacc

Why did you require -t and -i parameters? The former is to tell docker you want a tty because it will manipulate a terminal and the latter is to ask an interactive session.

Persistant data

By default, every data of the docker container get wiped out once it stops, which may be really undesirable if you use docker to deploy a service that has a state and require an installation, configuration files etc…

Docker has two ways to solve it:

1) map a local directory 2) map a docker volume name

This is done with the parameter -v with the docker run command.

$ docker run -v data:/var/www/html/ nextcloud

This will map a persistent storage named “data” on the host on the path /var/www/html in the docker instance. By using data, docker will check if /var/lib/docker/volumes/data exists, if so it will reuse it and if not it will create it.

This is a convenient way to name volumes and let docker manage it.

The other way is to map a local path to a container environment path.

$ docker run -v /home/nextcloud:/var/www/html nextcloud

In this case, the directory /home/nextcloud on the host and /var/www/html in the docker environment will be the same directory.

A few tips about the command cd

Written by Solène, on 04 September 2020.
Tags: #unix

Comments on Mastodon

While everyone familiar with a shell know about the command cd there are a few tips you should know.

Moving to your $HOME directory

$ pwd
/tmp
$ cd
$ pwd
/home/solene

Using cd without argument will change your current directory to your $HOME.

Moving into someone $HOME directory

While this should fail most of the time because people shouldn’t allow anyone to visit their $HOME, there are use case it can be used though.

$ cd ~user1
$ pwd
/home/user1
$ cd ~solene
$ pwd
/home/solene

Using ~user as a parameter will move to that user $HOME directory, note that cd and cd ~youruser have the same result.

Moving to previous directory

This is a very useful command which allow going back and forth between two directories.

$ pwd
/home/solene
$ cd /tmp
$ pwd
/tmp
$ cd -
/home/solene
$ pwd
/home/solene

When you use cd - the command will move to the previous directory in which you were. There are two special variables in your shell: PWD and OLDPWD, when you move somewhere, OLDPWD will hold your current location before moving and then PWD hold the new path. When you use cd - the two variables get exchanged, this mean you can only jump from two paths using cd - multiple times.

Please note that when using cd - your new location is displayed.

Changing directory by modifying current PWD

thfr@ showed me a cd feature I never heard about, and it’s the perfect place to write about it. Note that this work in ksh and zsh but is reported to not work in bash.

One example will explain better than any text.

$ pwd
/tmp/pobj/foobar-1.2.0/work
$ cd 1.2.0 2.4.0
/tmp/pobj/foobar-2.4.0/work

This tells cd to replace first parameter pattern by the second parameter in the current PWD and then cd into it.

$ pwd
/home/solene
$ cd solene user1
/home/user1

This could be done in a bloated way with the following command:

$ cd $(echo $PWD | sed "s/solene/user1/")

I learned it a few minutes ago but I see a lot of uses cases where I could use it.

Moving into the current directory after removal

In some specific case, like having your shell into a directory that existed but was deleted and removed (this happens often when you working into compilation directories).

A simple trick is to tell cd to go to the current location.

$ cd .

or

$ cd $PWD

And cd will go into the same path and you can start hacking again in that directory.

Find which package provides a given file in OpenBSD

Written by Solène, on 04 September 2020.
Tags: #openbsd

Comments on Mastodon

There is one very handy package on OpenBSD named pkglocatedb which provides the command pkglocate.

If you need to find a file or binary/program and you don’t know which package contains it, use pkglocate.

$ pkglocate */bin/exiftool  
p5-Image-ExifTool-12.00:graphics/p5-Image-ExifTool:/usr/local/bin/exiftool

With the result, I know that the package p5-Image-ExifTool will provide me the command exiftool.

Another example looking for files containing the pattern “libc++”

$ pkglocate libc++
base67:/usr/lib/libc++.so.5.0
base67:/usr/lib/libc++abi.so.3.0
comp67:/usr/lib/libc++.a
comp67:/usr/lib/libc++_p.a
comp67:/usr/lib/libc++abi.a
comp67:/usr/lib/libc++abi_p.a
qt4-4.8.7p23:x11/qt4,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt4/mkspecs/unsupported/macx-clang-libc++/
qt4-4.8.7p23:x11/qt4,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt4/mkspecs/unsupported/macx-clang-libc++/Info.plist.app
qt4-4.8.7p23:x11/qt4,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt4/mkspecs/unsupported/macx-clang-libc++/Info.plist.lib
qt4-4.8.7p23:x11/qt4,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt4/mkspecs/unsupported/macx-clang-libc++/qmake.conf
qt4-4.8.7p23:x11/qt4,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt4/mkspecs/unsupported/macx-clang-libc++/qplatformdefs.h
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++-32/
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++-32/qmake.conf
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++-32/qplatformdefs.h
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++/
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++/qmake.conf
qtbase-5.13.2p0:x11/qt5/qtbase,-main:/usr/local/lib/qt5/mkspecs/linux-clang-libc++/qplatformdefs.h

As you can see, base sets are also in the database used by pkglocate, so you can easily find if a file is from a set (that you should have) or if the file comes from a package.

Find which package installed a file

Klemmens Nanni (kn@) told me it’s possible to find which package installed a file present in the filesystem using pkg_info command which comes from the base system. This can be handy to know from which package an installed file comes from, without requiring pkglocatedb.

$ pkg_info -E /usr/local/bin/convert
/usr/local/bin/convert: ImageMagick-6.9.10.86p0
ImageMagick-6.9.10.86p0 image processing tools

This tells me convert binary was installed by ImageMagick package.

Download files listed in a http index with wget

Written by Solène, on 16 June 2020.
Tags: #wget #internet

Comments on Mastodon

Sometimes I need to download files through http from a list on an “autoindex” page and it’s always painful to find a correct command for this.

The easy solution is wget but you need to use the correct parameters because wget has a lot of mirroring options but you only want specific ones to achieve this goal.

I ended up with the following command:

wget --continue --accept "*.tgz" --no-directories --no-parent --recursive http://ftp.fr.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/6.7/amd64/

This will download every tgz files available at the address given as last parameter.

The parameters given will filter to only download the tgz files, put the files in the current working directory and most important, don’t try to escape to the parent directory to start downloading again. The `–continue`` parameter allow to interrupt wget and start again, downloaded file will be skipped and partially downloaded files will be completed.

Do not reuse this command if files changed on the remote server because continue feature only work if your local file and the remote file are the same, this simply look at the local and remote names and will ask the remote server to start downloading at the current byte range of your local file. If meanwhile the remote file changed, you will have a mix of the old and new file.

Obviously ftp protocol would be better suited for this download job but ftp is less and less available so I find wget to be a nice workaround for this.